Published Date: 2014-08-13 13:49:25
Subject: PRO/EDR> Diphtheria – India: (TG)
Archive Number: 20140813.2686501
DIPHTHERIA – INDIA: (TELANGANA)
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
Date: Mon 11 Aug 2014
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]
At least 15 cases of the dangerous, vaccine-preventable disease, diphtheria, has been reported during the 1st week of August  in Hyderabad, India, according to a Deccan Chronicle report today [11 Aug 2014].
The children were not immunized against the disease. Dr Altaf Naseem, pediatrician, explained, “This disease occurs only in those who have not been vaccinated. Vaccines are 3 primary doses and 2 booster doses. The 1st dose is given to a newborn.”
The report notes that the children in the slums are not getting vaccinated as some health workers have been transferred to other programs and others, who haven’t got paid in a long time, go to government offices seeking paychecks instead of immunizing the children in the slums.
Diphtheria is a dangerous respiratory disease is caused by a potent toxin produced by certain strains of the bacterium _Corynebacterium diphtheriae_. Diphtheria is extremely contagious through coughing or sneezing. Risk factors include crowding, poor hygiene, and lack of immunization.
Symptoms usually appear within a week of infection. This infection is characterized by a sore throat, coughing and fever, very similar to many common diseases like strep[tococcal sore] throat. Additional symptoms may be bloody, watery discharge from the nose and rapid breathing. However, a presumptive diagnosis can be made by observing a characteristic thick, grayish patch (membrane) found in the throat. In more severe cases, neck swelling and airway obstruction may be observed. In the tropics, cutaneous and wound diphtheria is much more common and can be a source of transmission.
The real serious danger is when the toxin that is produced by the bacterium gets into the bloodstream and spreads to organs like the heart and nervous system. Myocarditis, congestive heart failure and neurological illnesses of paralysis that mimic Guillain-Barre syndrome are most severe. Even with treatment, fatalities are still seen in up to 10 percent of cases.
Diphtheria can be treated and cured successfully with antitoxin and antibiotics if started early enough. The prevention of diphtheria is through vaccination.
[Byline: Robert Herriman]